Constraint effects in waterproof tunnels analysed with non-linear material in SOFiSTiK

This webinar is about the Lysaker Station of Fornebu Metro Line calculation undertaken by COWI AS, Oslo. Raul Rodriguez will discuss the project and the challenges faced during the design.

The constraint effects due to shrinkage are usually approached by simplified rules from experience or formulas from the standards, which provide a minimum reinforcement to control the cracking. These approaches are not adequate nor optimal when facing complex geometries, which are also affected by other loads, such as high water pressure. This was the motivation to approach the problem of the constraint effects by using area models in Sofistik with a non-linear material.


  • Introduction of the project of Fornebu metro line (Lysaker station)
  • Constraint effects combined with high water pressure. Motivation to find a global approach
  • Typical tunnel section: Calculation in transversal and longitudinal directions
  • Description of the analysis of the constraint effects by using a non-linear material in CSM/ASE (SOFiSTiK)
  • Verification of the cracking width based on this analysis

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